The innate immune system is triggered when microbial pathogens are targeted by pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize the pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The activated TLRs initiate a cascade of interaction between various intracellular signaling adaptors including MyD88, IRAKs, and TRAF6, resulting the activation of the MAP kinase, NF-κB, and IRF signaling pathways, which mediate inflammation through the production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, type I IFN, and antimicrobial peptides.
The adaptive immune system consists of B and T lymphocytes which mediate humoral immunity (e.g. antibody response) and cell-mediated immunity, respectively. B cell receptor and T cell receptor signaling is responsible for activation of Src family tyrosine kinases, such as Blk, Fyn, and Lyn in B cells and Fyn and Lck in T cells, resulting phosphorylation of the receptor-associated ITAM motifs. Phosphorylated ITAMs serve as the docking sites for Syk family tyrosine kinases, e.g. Syk in B cells and Zap-70 in T cells. Activated Syk kinases then propagate the signals via phosphorylation of downstream proteins. Furthermore, lymphocyte receptor signaling facilitates B and T cell development, differentiation, proliferation and survival.
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- amyloid A protein fragment [Homo sapiens]Catalog No. :A1053Apolipoproteins related to HDL in plasma
Amyloid A proteins (H2N-Ala-Gly-Leu-Pro-Glu-Lys-Tyr-OH), also called Serum amyloid A (SSA) proteins, are a family of apolipoproteins associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma.
- alpha-1 antitrypsin fragment 235-243 [Homo sapiens]/[Papio hamadryas]/[Cercopithecus aethiops]Catalog No. :A1052Protease inhibitoralpha-1 antitrypsin fragment 235-243 [Homo sapiens]/[Papio hamadryas]/[Cercopithecus aethiops]
- alpha-1 antitrypsin fragmentCatalog No. :A1051Protease inhibitor
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) (H2N-Leu-Gln-His-Leu-Glu-Asn-Glu-Leu-Thr-His-Asp-Ile-Ile-Thr-Lys-OH), which is known as serum trypsin inhibitor, is a protease inhibitor belonging to the serpin superfamily.
- Interleukin II (60-70)Catalog No. :A1030Cytokine,regulating WBC
Interleukin II (60-70), (C68H104N14O14S), a peptide with the sequence NH2- LEU-THR-PHE-LYS-PHE-TYR-MET-PRO-LYS-LYS-ALA-COOH, MW= 1373.7.
- β-Interleukin II (44-56)Catalog No. :A1027Cytokine,regulating WBCβ-Interleukin II (44-56), (C68H113N19O19), a peptide with the sequence NH2-ILE-LEU-ASN-GLY-ILE-ASN-ASN-TYR-LYS-ASN-PRO-LYS-LEU-COOH, MW= 1500.7.
- β-Interleukin I (163-171), humanCatalog No. :A1026T cell activatorβ-Interleukin I (163-171), human(C39H64N12O19), a peptide with the sequence Val-Gln-Gly-Glu-Glu-Ser-Asn-Asp-Lys, MW= 1005.
- a-MSH, amideCatalog No. :A1025Melanocyte-stimulating hormonesa-MSH, amide (C77H109N21O19S1), a peptide with the sequence Ac-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Met-Glu-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-Pro-Val-NH2, MW= 1664.9. The melanocyte-stimulating hormones (collectively referred to as MSH or intermedins) are a class of peptide hormones that are produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland.
- Myelopeptide-2 (MP-2)Catalog No. :A1010Peptide used for restoring human T lymphocytes
Myelopeptide-2 (MP-2) (C41H57N7O8), with the sequence Leu-Val-Val-Tyr-Pro-Trp, is originally isolated from the supernatant of porcine bone marrow cell culture, and is able to restore the mitogen responsiveness of human T lymphocytes inhibited by conditioned medium from HL-60 leukemia cells or measles virus.
- Anti-Inflammatory Peptide 1Catalog No. :A1008PLA2 inhibitor
Anti-Inflammatory Peptide 1 (C45H82N12O14S2), with sequence H-Met-Gln-Met-Lys-Lys-Val-Leu-Asp-Ser-OH, belongs to one of the synthetic oligopeptides correspond to a region of high amino-acid sequence similarity between uteroglobin and lipocortin I.
- COG 133Catalog No. :A1131ApoE mimetic peptide
COG 133, (C97H181N37O19), a peptide with the sequence Ac-Leu-Arg-Val-Arg-Leu-Ala-Ser-His-Leu-Arg-Lys-Leu-Arg-Lys-Arg-Leu-Leu-amide,MW= 2169.73.