The innate immune system is triggered when microbial pathogens are targeted by pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize the pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The activated TLRs initiate a cascade of interaction between various intracellular signaling adaptors including MyD88, IRAKs, and TRAF6, resulting the activation of the MAP kinase, NF-κB, and IRF signaling pathways, which mediate inflammation through the production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, type I IFN, and antimicrobial peptides.
The adaptive immune system consists of B and T lymphocytes which mediate humoral immunity (e.g. antibody response) and cell-mediated immunity, respectively. B cell receptor and T cell receptor signaling is responsible for activation of Src family tyrosine kinases, such as Blk, Fyn, and Lyn in B cells and Fyn and Lck in T cells, resulting phosphorylation of the receptor-associated ITAM motifs. Phosphorylated ITAMs serve as the docking sites for Syk family tyrosine kinases, e.g. Syk in B cells and Zap-70 in T cells. Activated Syk kinases then propagate the signals via phosphorylation of downstream proteins. Furthermore, lymphocyte receptor signaling facilitates B and T cell development, differentiation, proliferation and survival.
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- A1053 amyloid A protein fragment [Homo sapiens]Summary: Apolipoproteins related to HDL in plasma
- A1052 alpha-1 antitrypsin fragment 235-243 [Homo sapiens]/[Papio hamadryas]/[Cercopithecus aethiops]Summary: Protease inhibitor
- A1051 alpha-1 antitrypsin fragmentSummary: Protease inhibitor
- A1030 Interleukin II (60-70)Summary: Cytokine,regulating WBC
- A1027 β-Interleukin II (44-56)Summary: Cytokine,regulating WBC
- A1026 β-Interleukin I (163-171), humanSummary: T cell activator
- A1025 a-MSH, amideSummary: Melanocyte-stimulating hormones
- A1010 Myelopeptide-2 (MP-2)Summary: Peptide used for restoring human T lymphocytes
- A1008 Anti-Inflammatory Peptide 1Summary: PLA2 inhibitor
- A1131 COG 133Summary: ApoE mimetic peptide