The innate immune system is triggered when microbial pathogens are targeted by pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize the pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The activated TLRs initiate a cascade of interaction between various intracellular signaling adaptors including MyD88, IRAKs, and TRAF6, resulting the activation of the MAP kinase, NF-κB, and IRF signaling pathways, which mediate inflammation through the production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, type I IFN, and antimicrobial peptides.
The adaptive immune system consists of B and T lymphocytes which mediate humoral immunity (e.g. antibody response) and cell-mediated immunity, respectively. B cell receptor and T cell receptor signaling is responsible for activation of Src family tyrosine kinases, such as Blk, Fyn, and Lyn in B cells and Fyn and Lck in T cells, resulting phosphorylation of the receptor-associated ITAM motifs. Phosphorylated ITAMs serve as the docking sites for Syk family tyrosine kinases, e.g. Syk in B cells and Zap-70 in T cells. Activated Syk kinases then propagate the signals via phosphorylation of downstream proteins. Furthermore, lymphocyte receptor signaling facilitates B and T cell development, differentiation, proliferation and survival.
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- C4050 6α-methyl-11β-HydroxyprogesteroneSummary: corticosteroid and anti-inflammatory
- C3559 NF-κB Activation Inhibitor IIISummary: NF-κB inhibitor
- C3420 Cannabidiol dimethyl etherSummary: 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor
- C3283 2-Trifluoromethyl-2'-methoxychalconeSummary: Nrf2 activator
- B7830 AS 101Summary: Immunomodulator
- B6089 PS-1145Summary: IKK inhibitor
- B4986 LY2409881Summary: potent and selective IKK2 inhibitor
- B4825 IKKε-IN-1Summary: potent IKKε inhibitor
- B4880 WS6Summary: inducer of β cell proliferation
- B4749 SC75741Summary: NF-κB inhibitor, potent