The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a highly conserved family of serine/threonine kinases that mediate a board range of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, motility, migration, stress response, apoptosis and survival. The activation of MAPK involves signaling pathways consisting of MAPK kinase (i.e. MAPKKK or MEKK) that activates MAPK/ERK (i.e. MAPKK or MEK). A variety of extracellular signals such as mitogens, cytokines, growth factors, and environmental stressors stimulate a phosphorylation-dependent increase in the activity of MAPK.
Activated MAPKs transduce the phosphorylation and activation of MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs), e.g. RSK, MSK, or MNK family, and MK2/3/5. There are three main MAPK families, signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2 or p44/42), the c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1-3 (JNK1-3)/ stress activated protein kinases (SAPK1A, 1B, 1C), the p38 isoforms (p38α, β, γ, and δ). ERK signaling is involved in cell division, migration and survival. p38 MAPK and JNK/SAPK pathways are activated by cellular stress. The p38 MAPK pathway regulates cell motility, transcription, and chromatin remodeling. JNK/SAPK signaling affects apoptosis and inflammation. Dysregulation of MAPK pathway results in tumorgenesis and other pathological conditions.
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- Summary: selective ATP competitive inhibitor of the MAP kinases p38α and p38β
- Summary: lipophilic activator of the cyclic-AMP- and cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinases, PKA and PKG
- Summary: orally active inhibitor of the MAP kinases p38α and p38β
- Target: MK2Summary: highly selective, non-ATP competitive MK2 inhibitor
- Summary: p38 MAPK inhibitor
- Summary: a negative control in studies of p38 inhibition
- Summary: A signal-specific JNK/p38 pathway and TAK 1 inhibitor
- Summary: potent inhibitor of PKA and PKG
- Summary: substrate for cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)
- Summary: MEK1/2 inhibitor