Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialized tissue cell types. There are two types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells (ESC) and adult stem cells (ASC). The ESC is originated from the inner cell of blastocysts, and the ASC is located in specific tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue and blood.
In ESC, BMP/TGF-β signaling pathway plays a key role in maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal. It signals through Smad proteins, and the FGF signaling pathway, which activates the MAPK and Akt pathways. The Wnt signaling pathway also promotes pluripotency. OCT-4, SOX2, and NANOG are three main transcription factors that are expressed and activated by these pathways. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are pluripotent cells that can be generated from differentiated cells with forced expression of specific reprogramming factors. Both ESC and iPSC can be induced to develop into distinct cell types that associated with three primary germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Signaling pathways that control the development of these cell lineages, including BMP/TGF-β, Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog and Hippo pathways, which regulate cell division, growth and differentiation. Defects in stem cell signaling are related to developmental disorders and cancer.
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- A8735 XMU-MP-12 CitationTarget: MSTSummary: MST1/2 inhibitor, potent and selective
- B7364 QS 11Summary: ARFGAP1 inhibitor,Wnt/beta-catenin pathway modulator
- A9905 Stem Cell Set ISummary: For inhibiting HDAC/ GSK-3α/β /histone methyltransferase /ALK5
- C5433 HLY78Summary: positive modulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway
- C5138 CUR 61414Summary: potent inhibitor of hedgehog-induced cellular activity
- C5136 Oxy-16Summary: antagonist of hedgehog activity
- C4813 ML-243Summary: inhibitor of cancer stem cells
- C4664 RSC-133Summary: promotes the reprogramming of human somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells
- C4582 ALLO-1Summary: SMO antagonist
- C4227 BRD7116Summary: inhibitor of leukemia stem cell activity