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Neuroscience

Neurons are the foundations of the sophisticated neural networks. Neurotransmitters such as dopamine, glutamate, and GABA, are crucial signaling molecules for the delivery of neuronal signals. Neurons synthesize/import neurotransmitters, and store them in presynaptic vesicles. A neuronal impulse is propagated by the vesicles released from presynaptic neurons.

Neurotransmitter receptors function via various G-protein coupled and G-protein independent mechanisms that activate downstream intracellular signaling pathways such as cAMP/PKA, PI3K/AKT, phospholipase A2, and phospholipase C pathways. For instance, dopamine receptors act through adenylate cyclase to activate PKA and other signaling molecules, thereby mediate gene expression through the actions of CREB and other transcription factors. Other neurotransmitters such as NMDAR or AMPAR are associated with ion channels that control flux of Ca2+ and Na+, thus propagating the action potential across the post-synaptic neuron.

Dysfunctions in GABAergic/glutamatergic/serotonergic/dopaminergic pathways result in a broad range of neurological disorders such as chronic pain, neurodegenerative diseases, and insomnia, as well as mental disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and addiction.

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  1. Clemizole hydrochloride
    Catalog No. :
    A3316
    H1 histamine receptor antagonist
    Clemizole Hcl is a H1 histamine receptor antagonist. Recently, researchers have identified that clemizole hydrochloride can inhibit NS4B's RNA binding and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication.
  2. amyloid A protein fragment [Homo sapiens]
    Catalog No. :
    A1053
    Apolipoproteins related to HDL in plasma

    Amyloid A proteins (H2N-Ala-Gly-Leu-Pro-Glu-Lys-Tyr-OH), also called Serum amyloid A (SSA) proteins, are a family of apolipoproteins associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma.

  3. [Ser25] Protein Kinase C (19-31)
    Catalog No. :
    A1033
    PKC substrate

    Protein Kinase C (19-31), (C67H118N26O17), a peptide with the sequence H-ARG-PHE-ALA-ARG-LYS-GLY-SER-LEU-ARG-GLN-LYS-ASN-VAL-OH, MW= 1559.82.

  4. Adrenorphin
    Catalog No. :
    A1032
    Endogenous μ/κ opioid agonist,potent and selective

    Adrenorphin, also sometimes referred to as metorphamide, is an endogenous, C-terminally amidated, opioid octapeptide that is produced from proteolytic cleavage of proenkephalin A and is widely distributed throughout the mammalian brain(1).

  5. Myelin Basic Protein (68-82), guinea pig
    Catalog No. :
    A1031
    Myelin Basic Protein

    Myelin Basic Protein (68-82), guinea pig,(C71H113N23O28), a peptide with the sequence Tyr-Gly-Ser-Leu-Pro-Gln-Lys-Ser-Gln-Arg-Ser-Gln-Asp-Glu-Asn, MW= 1736.79.

  6. Cadherin Peptide, avian
    Catalog No. :
    A1028
    Role in cell adhesion

    Cadherin Peptide, avian, (C44H75N17O13), a peptide with the sequence Leu-Arg-Ala-His-Ala-Val-Asp-Val-Asn-Gly-NH2, MW= 1050.2.

  7. Laminin (925-933)
    Catalog No. :
    A1023
    Extracellular matrix glycoprotein

    Laminin (925-933) is a peptide(Cys-Asp-Pro-Gly-Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-Arg) derived from residues 925-933 of the laminin B1 chain that binds to the laminin receptor.

  8. GTP-Binding Protein Fragment, G alpha
    Catalog No. :
    A1022
    Hydrolyzes GTP to GDP

    Using specific antisera raised against synthetic peptides, we find that three distinct GTP-binding protein alpha subunits remain bound to the plasma membrane even after activation with nonhydrolyzable GTP analog.

  9. Adrenorphin, Free Acid
    Catalog No. :
    A1017
    μ/κ opioid receptor agonist

    Adrenorphin, also sometimes referred to as metorphamide, is an endogenous, C-terminally amidated, opioid octapeptide that is produced from proteolytic cleavage of proenkephalin A and is widely distributed throughout the mammalian brain(1).

  10. Ac-Endothelin-1 (16-21), human
    Catalog No. :
    A1016
    ETA/ETB agonist,vasoconstrictor

    ENDOTHELIN-1 (ET-1), the principal peptide of the endothelin family, has been shown to have a variety of biological activities in both vascular and nonvascular tissues, including the heart, the kidney, and the central nervous system.

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