Neurons are the foundations of the sophisticated neural networks. Neurotransmitters such as dopamine, glutamate, and GABA, are crucial signaling molecules for the delivery of neuronal signals. Neurons synthesize/import neurotransmitters, and store them in presynaptic vesicles. A neuronal impulse is propagated by the vesicles released from presynaptic neurons.
Neurotransmitter receptors function via various G-protein coupled and G-protein independent mechanisms that activate downstream intracellular signaling pathways such as cAMP/PKA, PI3K/AKT, phospholipase A2, and phospholipase C pathways. For instance, dopamine receptors act through adenylate cyclase to activate PKA and other signaling molecules, thereby mediate gene expression through the actions of CREB and other transcription factors. Other neurotransmitters such as NMDAR or AMPAR are associated with ion channels that control flux of Ca2+ and Na+, thus propagating the action potential across the post-synaptic neuron.
Dysfunctions in GABAergic/glutamatergic/serotonergic/dopaminergic pathways result in a broad range of neurological disorders such as chronic pain, neurodegenerative diseases, and insomnia, as well as mental disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and addiction.
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- A3316 Clemizole hydrochlorideTarget: Histamine H1 Receptors|TRPC channelSummary: H1 histamine receptor antagonist
- B8681 Fenoldopam (mesylate)
- A1053 amyloid A protein fragment [Homo sapiens]Summary: Apolipoproteins related to HDL in plasma
- A1033 [Ser25] Protein Kinase C (19-31)Summary: PKC substrate
- A1032 AdrenorphinSummary: Endogenous μ/κ opioid agonist,potent and selective
- A1031 Myelin Basic Protein (68-82), guinea pigSummary: Myelin Basic Protein
- A1028 Cadherin Peptide, avianSummary: Role in cell adhesion
- A1023 Laminin (925-933)2 CitationSummary: Extracellular matrix glycoprotein
- A1022 GTP-Binding Protein Fragment, G alphaSummary: Hydrolyzes GTP to GDP
- A1017 Adrenorphin, Free AcidSummary: μ/κ opioid receptor agonist