TGF-β / Smad Signaling
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathway is involved in a number of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, motility and adhesion etc. This signaling pathway plays a crucial part in mammalian development as well as in tumor suppression through inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in multiple cell types.
The TGF-β family is generally classified into two sub-families, TGF-β ligands, and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) ligands. In canonical signaling, receptor activation lead to phosphorylation of a group of transcription factors called Smads. TGF-β ligands bind to type II receptors (TGF-β II) which recruit and phosphorylate type I receptor (TGF-β I) on serine/threonine residues. The TGF-β I then recruits and phosphorylates a receptor regulated Smad (R-Smad). The R-Smad binds to the common Smad (Co-Smad) and forms a heterodimeric complex. This complex then translocates into the cell nucleus where it binds with nuclear co-factors to regulate the transcription of various target genes. Dysregulation of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is associated with a number of pathological conditions including fibrosis, cancer, immunodeficiency, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases etc.
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- B5965 Tamoxifen1 CitationTarget: PKCSummary: TGF-β modulatory and PKC inhibitory effects
- B5946 EW-71971 CitationTarget: BMP and Other Activin ReceptorsSummary: Selective inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor kinase
- B5858 ITD 1Summary: The first selective TGFβ inhibitor
- B4965 (-)-epicatechin gallateSummary: major catechin in green tea
- B4964 (-)-epicatechinSummary: inducer of pancreatic β-cell regeneration
- C4885 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glycerol
- C4882 1,2-Dilauroyl-sn-glycerol
- C4877 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycerol
- C5388 Hexadecyl Methyl GlycerolSummary: protein kinase C activity inhibitor
- C4829 UCN-02Summary: protein kinase C inhibitor