Endocrinology and Hormones
Endocrinology is the study of hormones, their receptors and intracellular signaling pathways, as well as the related diseases. The endocrine system functions can be broadly classified into several categories, including reproduction and sexual differentiation, development and growth, maintenance of the internal environment, and regulation of metabolism/nutrient supply.
There are three types of hormones based on their chemical composition: Amines (e.g. dopamine, adrenalin and noradrenalin); Steroids (e.g. estrogen, testosterone and glucocorticoids); Peptides (e.g. the peptide hormones insulin, ghrelin and vasopressin). Peptide hormones produced by secretory nervous tissue are known as neuropeptides. For example, thyroid hormone plays important parts in development, homeostasis and metabolism, while cortisol is essential for growth, nutrient supply and immune function. Moreover, the regulation of blood glucose involves several pancreatic peptide insulin and its counter regulatory hormone, glucagon, as well as cortisol, growth hormone and epinephrine.
Dysregulations in endocrine system are implicated in diseases such as Acromegaly, Cushing Syndrome, Diabetes, Dwarfism, Graves Disease, Hermaphroditism, Delayed and Precocious Puberty and Thyroid Diseases.
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- Angiotensin 1/2 (1-7) amideCatalog No. :A1054Vasoconstrictor
Angiotensin I/II (1-7) amide (H2N-Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-amide) is a peptide analog to angiotensin II that is used as a vasopressor in the treatment of certain types of shock and circulatory collapse.
- Angiotensin 1/2 (2-7)Catalog No. :A1050Vasoconstrictor
Angiotensin I/II (2-7) is a peptide (ARG-VAL-TYR-ILE-HIS-PRO) containing the amino acids 2-7 that are converted from Angiotensin I/II peptide.
- Angiotensin 1/2 (5-7)Catalog No. :A1049Vasoconstrictor
Angiotensin 1/2 (5-7), (C17H27N5O4), a peptide with the sequence H2N-Ile-His-Pro-OH, MW=365.43.
- Angiotensin 1/2 (1-6)Catalog No. :A1048Vasoconstrictor
Angiotensin I/II (1-6) is a peptide (ASP-ARG-VAL-TYR-ILE-HIS) containing the amino acids 1-6 that are converted from Angiotensin I/II peptide.
- Angiotensin 1/2 (1-5)Catalog No. :A1047Vasoconstrictor
Angiotensin I/II (1-5) is a peptide (ASP-ARG-VAL-TYR-ILE) containing the amino acids 1-5 that are converted from Angiotensin I/II peptide.
- TRH Precursor PeptideCatalog No. :A1037Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone Precursor Peptide
TRH Precursor Peptide
- Acetyl Angiotensinogen (1-14), porcineCatalog No. :A1034Angiotensinogen precursor
Acetyl Angiotensinogen (1-14),porcine, (C87H125N21O21), a peptide with the sequenceAC-ASP-ARG-VAL-TYR-ILE-HIS-PRO-PHE-HIS-LEU-LEU-VAL-TYR-SER-OH, MW= 1801.05.
- a-MSH, amideCatalog No. :A1025Melanocyte-stimulating hormonesa-MSH, amide (C77H109N21O19S1), a peptide with the sequence Ac-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Met-Glu-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-Pro-Val-NH2, MW= 1664.9. The melanocyte-stimulating hormones (collectively referred to as MSH or intermedins) are a class of peptide hormones that are produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland.
- Glucagon (19-29), humanCatalog No. :A1019Potent Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase inhibitor
Glucagon(NH2-His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asp-Ser-Arg-Arg-Ala-Gln-Asp-Phe-Val-Gln-Trp-Leu-Met-Asn-Thr-COOH), a peptide hormone secreted by the pancreas, raises blood glucose levels. Its effect is opposite that of insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels.
- Beta-Lipotropin (1-10), porcineCatalog No. :A1014Morphine-like substance
Morphine-like substances exist in brain or the pituitary of various species. Beta-lipotropin (beta-LPH) was found to contain within its C-terminal sequence the primary structure of these peptides.