In vitro transcription of capped mRNA with modified nucleotides and Poly(A) tail
Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA)
TSA (Tyramide Signal Amplification), used for signal amplification of ISH, IHC and IC etc.
Phos Binding Reagent Acrylamide
Separation of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated proteins without phospho-specific antibody
Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8)
A convenient and sensitive way for cell proliferation assay and cytotoxicity assay
SYBR Safe DNA Gel Stain
Safe and sensitive stain for visualization of DNA or RNA in agarose or acrylamide gels.
Protect the integrity of proteins from multiple proteases and phosphatases for different applications.
LD50 = 2.5 mg/kg for mouse and 5 mg/kg for rabbit 
Valinomycin is a dodecadepsipeptide antibiotic, which is obtained from several Streptomyces strains. Valinomycin functions as a potassium-specific transporter and promotes the movement of K+ through lipid membranes. Excessive K+ efflux is an ionic mechanism underlying apoptosis.
In vitro: Valinomycin caused substantial CHO cells death within 12 h of treatment. Several apoptotic events were identified in valinomycin-treated CHO cells, including caspase-3 activation, phosphatidylserine (PS) membrane translocation, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization during the first few hours of treatment. K+ efflux was reduced by elevating extracellular K+ concentrations .
In vivo: Valinomycin is irritant in the case of eye and skin contact. Inhalation of valinomycin can cause breathing disturbances and even loss of conscious. Lethal doses (LD50) for mouse and rabbit is 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg respectively. Valinomycin also shows to provoke lots of chronic effects, including damage of the central and peripheral nervous system, eyes, lens and cornea .
Clinical trial: Because valinomycin’s toxicity to eukaryotic cells, it can not be used in human therapy .
 Kroteń MA, Bartoszewicz M, Swiecicka I. Cereulide and valinomycin, two important natural dodecadepsipeptides with ionophoretic activities. Pol J Microbiol. 2010;59(1):3-10.
 Abdalah R1, Wei L, Francis K, Yu SP. Valinomycin-induced apoptosis in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Sep 11;405(1-2):68-73. Epub 2006 Jul 20.
|Physical Appearance||A crystalline solid|
|Storage||Desiccate at -20°C|
|Solubility||Soluble in DMSO|
|Canonical SMILES||O=C([[email protected]@H](C(C)C)OC([[email protected]@H](C(C)C)NC1=O)=O)N[[email protected]@H](C(O[[email protected]](C)C(N[[email protected]@H](C(O[[email protected]](C(N[[email protected]](C(O[[email protected]@H](C)C(N[[email protected]@H](C(O[[email protected]@H](C(N[[email protected]](C(O[[email protected]]1C)=O)C(C)C)=O)C(C)C)=O)C(C)C)=O)=O)C(C)C)=O)C(C)C)=O)C(C)C)=O)=O)C(C)C|
|Shipping Condition||Evaluation sample solution: ship with blue ice. All other available sizes: ship with RT, or blue ice upon request.|
|General tips||For obtaining a higher solubility, please warm the tube at 37°C and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while. Stock solution can be stored below -20°C for several months.|