In vitro transcription of capped mRNA with modified nucleotides and Poly(A) tail
Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA)
TSA (Tyramide Signal Amplification), used for signal amplification of ISH, IHC and IC etc.
Phos Binding Reagent Acrylamide
Separation of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated proteins without phospho-specific antibody
Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8)
A convenient and sensitive way for cell proliferation assay and cytotoxicity assay
SYBR Safe DNA Gel Stain
Safe and sensitive stain for visualization of DNA or RNA in agarose or acrylamide gels.
Protect the integrity of proteins from multiple proteases and phosphatases for different applications.
Menadione (vitamin K3), used as a nutritional supplement, is an inhibitor of mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (pol γ), with an IC 50 value of 6 µM .
Pol γ is responsible for all aspects of mitochondrial DNA synthesis, including all replication, recombination of the mitochondrial genome, and repair of mitochondrial DNA damage .
In the extract of mitochondrion fraction from HCT116 (p53+/+ and p53–/–) cells, menadione at 30 μM inhibited pol γ by more than 80%. In HCT116 cells, 30 μM menadione also caused impairment of mitochondrial DNA replication and repair, and triggered a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to apoptosis. At a lower concentration of 3 μM, menadione did not significantly increase the ROS level, but was able to effectively inhibit cancer cell proliferation, which could be reversed by supplementing glycolytic substrates .
In Emory mice, menadione at a low non-toxic dose of 0.12% (w/w), used as a dietary supplement for 10 to 12 weeks, caused early signs of cataract, such as prominent anterior suture, in 68% of the Emory mice .
. Mizushina Y, Yonezawa Y, Yoshida H. Selective inhibition of animal DNA polymerases by fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and their related compounds. Current Enzyme Inhibition, 2007, 3(1): -.
. Sasaki R, Suzuki Y, Yonezawa Y, et al. DNA polymerase gamma inhibition by vitamin K3 induces mitochondria-mediated cytotoxicity in human cancer cells. Cancer Science, 2008, 99(5): 1040-1048.
. Bhuyan D K, Huang X, Kuriakose G, et al. Menadione-induced oxidative stress accelerates onset of Emory mouse cataract in vivo. Current eye research, 1997.
|Physical Appearance||A solid|
|Storage||Store at -20°C|
|Solubility||≥5.15mg/mL in DMSO|
|Shipping Condition||Evaluation sample solution: ship with blue ice. All other available sizes: ship with RT, or blue ice upon request.|
|General tips||For obtaining a higher solubility, please warm the tube at 37°C and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while. Stock solution can be stored below -20°C for several months.|