CGK733 is an inhibitor of kinase ATM and ATR with IC50 value of ~200 nM .
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase which plays pivotal role in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints. And when in hypoxia circumstance, loss of ATM-related (ATR) kinase induces the decreasing of HIF-1 DNA binding, which consequently affects GLUT-1 and CAIX expression in the protein level. The components of ATM and ATR regulated signaling pathways which enhances cellular sensitivity to chemo- and radiotherapy thus provide attractive pharmacological targets [2, 3].
CGK733 selectively inhibited ATM and ATR kinase activities and blocked their checkpoint signaling pathways. Treated HEK-293 cells with GSK733 would increase the sensitivity of cells to radiotherapy . When tested with HBV-positive HCC cell line HepG2.2.15, CGK733 treatment significantly increased the cells sensitivity to taxol via inducing the formation of multinucleated cells . Treated with CGK733, senescent breast, lung, and colon carcinoma cells were induced to undergo cell death . CGK733 treated tumor cells could enhance the sensitivity to radio therapy via inhibiting DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints of tumor cells . In MCF-7 breast cancer cells, CGK733 treatment induced detectable decline levels of cyclin D1 protein and reduced phosphorylated and total retinoblastoma protein (RB) which inhibited cell proliferation .
. Williams, T.M., et al., Molecular imaging of the ATM kinase activity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2013. 86(5): p. 969-77.
. Wang, H., et al., CGK733 enhances multinucleated cell formation and cytotoxicity induced by taxol in Chk1-deficient HBV-positive hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2012. 422(1): p. 103-8.
. Alao, J.P. and P. Sunnerhagen, The ATM and ATR inhibitors CGK733 and caffeine suppress cyclin D1 levels and inhibit cell proliferation. Radiat Oncol, 2009. 4(51): p. 4-51.
. Crescenzi, E., et al., Ataxia telangiectasia mutated and p21CIP1 modulate cell survival of drug-induced senescent tumor cells: implications for chemotherapy. Clin Cancer Res, 2008. 14(6): p. 1877-87.
. Kuroda, S., Y. Urata, and T. Fujiwara, Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and the Mre11-Rad50-NBS1 complex: promising targets for radiosensitization. Acta Med Okayama, 2012. 66(2): p. 83-92.