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Zileuton

Catalog No.
A5384
5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitor, orally active
Grouped product items
SizePriceStock Qty
10mM (in 1mL DMSO)
$55.00
In stock
100mg
$100.00
In stock

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Email: [email protected]

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Background

IC50: Zileuton inhibited 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic aicd synthesis in rat basophilic leukemia cell and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (IC50 = 0.5 and 0.3 μM), respectively [1].
5-Lipoxygenase pathway is to form leukotrienes, including leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 5-oxo-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetranoic acid and the cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4) and activates all four leukotriene receptors, BLT1, BLT2, cysLT1 and cysLT2. Zileuton is the only commercially available inhibitor of the 5-Lipoxygenase pathway.
In vitro: Treatment of H9c2 cells with zileuton efficiently induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 biosynthesis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Zileuton also exerted a profound protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress, a mimic of reperfusion damage in vitro, and this protective effect was abolished by COX-2-selective inhibitor. Furthermore, zileuton-stimulated ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation was attenuated by rottlerin, indicating that PKCδ might act upstream of ERK1/2 and Akt. These results suggest that zileuton-induced COX-2 expression is sequentially mediated through PKCδ-dependent activation of ERK1/2 and Akt. Based on these findings, we propose that zileuton might provide a new therapeutic strategy for ischemia/reperfusion injury of the heart [2].
In vivo: To investigate the mechanism underlying zileuton's neuroprotection, SD rats underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), then received treatment with zileuton or vehicle after the onset of ischemia. Zileuton was found to significantly reduce neurological deficit scores, cerebral infarct volume, MPO activity, and the lipid peroxidation levels. It also inhibited the expression of NF-kappaB and decreased the expression and activity of iNOS in rat brain. In addition, zileuton attenuated the release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in serum. These results suggested that zileuton reduces inflammatory reaction and brain damage in a rat model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia. The neuroprotective effect of zileuton in cerebral ischemia might be associated with the inhibition of inflammatory reaction [3].
Clinical trial:
Zileuton (trade name ZYFLO) is an orally active inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, and thus inhibits leukotrienes (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) formation. Zileuton is used for the maintenance treatment of asthma. Zileuton was introduced in 1996 by Abbott Laboratories and is now marketed in two formulations by Cornerstone Therapeutics Inc. under the brand names ZYFLO and ZYFLO CR. Given the important role that leukotrienes play in airway inflammation, zileuton provides an additional therapeutic option in the management of chronic, persistent asthma, particularly those asthmatics with more severe disease. In addition, zileuton has shown promise in a number of other conditions, including upper airway inflammatory conditions, dermatological disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The development of new formulations, including a controlled release tablet formulation for b.i.d. dosing and an intravenous preparation for acute asthma exacerbations may enhance clinical utility and expand therapeutic indications.
Reference:
[1] Carter GW, Young PR, Albert DH, Bouska J, Dyer R, Bell RL, Summers JB, Brooks DW. 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of zileuton. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1991;256(3):929-37.
[2] Hyun-Jeong Kwak, Kyoung-Mi Park, Hye-Eun Choi, Hyun-Joung Lim, Jin-Hee Park, Hyun-Young Park. The cardioprotective effects of zileuton, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, are mediated by COX-2 via activation of PKCδ. Cellular Signalling 22 (2010) 80-87
[3] Tu XK, Yang WZ, Wang CH, Shi SS, Zhang YL, Chen CM, Yang YK, Jin CD, Wen S.Zileuton reduces inflammatory reaction and brain damage following permanent cerebral ischemia in rats. Inflammation. 2010;33(5):344-52.

Chemical Properties

Physical AppearanceA solid
StorageStore at -20°C
M.Wt236.29
Cas No.111406-87-2
FormulaC11H12N2O2S
Solubility≥13.3mg/mL in DMSO, ≥12.73 mg/mL in EtOH,insoluble in H2O
Chemical Name1-[1-(1-benzothiophen-2-yl)ethyl]-1-hydroxyurea
SDFDownload SDF
Canonical SMILESCC(C1=CC2=CC=CC=C2S1)N(C(=O)N)O
Shipping ConditionEvaluation sample solution : ship with blue ice.All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request
General tipsFor obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.

Protocol

Cell experiment [1]:

Cell lines

H9c2 cells

Preparation method

The solubility of this compound in DMSO is > 13.3 mg/mL. General tips for obtaining a higher concentration: Please warm the tube at 37 °C for 10 minutes and/or shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while. Stock solution can be stored below - 20 °C for several months.

Reacting condition

0 ~ 100 μM; 0 ~ 24 hrs

Applications

Zileuton induced COX-2 protein expression in time- and dose-dependent manners without changing the COX-1 protein level. After the treatment with 50 μM Zileuton for 5 hrs, the level of COX-2 protein peaked and sustained for up to 12 hrs. In addition, Zileuton treatment significantly inhibited the induction of cell death by H2O2.

Animal experiment [2]:

Animal models

A rat permanent MCAO model

Dosage form

50 mg/kg; p.o.

Applications

In a rat permanent MCAO model, Zileuton significantly reduced the neurological deficit and the cerebral infarction volume. HE staining showed that Zileuton reduced necrotic or ischemic injured neurons. In addition, Zileuton also markedly reduced MCAO-induced increases of MPO activity, MDA content, NF-κB p65 immuno-positive cells, iNOS mRNA and iNOS protein expression, as well as serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels.

Other notes

Please test the solubility of all compounds indoor, and the actual solubility may slightly differ with the theoretical value. This is caused by an experimental system error and it is normal.

References:

[1]. Hyun-Jeong Kwak, Kyoung-Mi Park, Hye-Eun Choi, Hyun-Joung Lim, Jin-Hee Park, Hyun-Young Park. The cardioprotective effects of zileuton, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, are mediated by COX-2 via activation of PKCδ. Cellular Signalling 22 (2010) 80-87.

[2]. Tu XK, Yang WZ, Wang CH, Shi SS, Zhang YL, Chen CM, Yang YK, Jin CD, Wen S.Zileuton reduces inflammatory reaction and brain damage following permanent cerebral ischemia in rats. Inflammation. 2010;33(5):344-52.

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