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Gemcitabine

In stock
Catalog No.
A8437
inhibitor of DNA synthesis
Grouped product items
SizePriceStock Qty
100mg
$50.00
In stock

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Gemcitabine is an inhibitor of DNA synthesis [1].

DNA synthesis is a natural creation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules and plays an important role in cell growth.

Gemcitabine is an active chemotherapeutic agents that disrupt DNA replication. In tumor cells, gemcitabine activated checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), which regulated apoptosis, DNA repair and cell-cycle arrest. Also, gemcitabine activated the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 complex and the protein kinases ATM and ATR and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), which blocked cell-cycle progression and influence DNA repair [1]. Gemcitabine is a DNA synthesis inhibitor with anti-tumor activity. In human osteosarcoma cell lines HOS and MG63, gemcitabine inhibited DNA synthesis and induced apoptosis [2].

In C3H mice inoculated with murine osteosarcoma cell line LM8, gemcitabine induced cell apoptotics and reduced the size of primary tumor. Also, it inhibited metastatic lesions in the lung [2]. In C57Bl/6 mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus, gemcitabine significantly inhibited disease progression. Also, gemcitabine reduced spleen size, provirus levels and plasma IgM [3].

References:
[1].  Karnitz LM, Flatten KS, Wagner JM, et al. Gemcitabine-induced activation of checkpoint signaling pathways that affect tumor cell survival. Mol Pharmacol, 2005, 68(6): 1636-1644.
[2].  Ando T, Ichikawa J, Okamoto A, et al. Gemcitabine inhibits viability, growth, and metastasis of osteosarcoma cell lines. J Orthop Res, 2005, 23(4): 964-969.
[3].  Clouser CL, Holtz CM, Mullett M, et al. Analysis of the ex vivo and in vivo antiretroviral activity of gemcitabine. PLoS One, 2011, 6(1): e15840.

Chemical Properties

Physical AppearanceA solid
StorageStore at -20°C
M.Wt263.2
Cas No.95058-81-4
FormulaC9H11F2N3O4
Solubility≥11.75mg/mL in H2O with gentle warming
Chemical Name4-amino-1-[(2R,4R,5R)-3,3-difluoro-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]pyrimidin-2-one
SDFDownload SDF
Canonical SMILESC1=CN(C(=O)N=C1N)C2C(C(C(O2)CO)O)(F)F
Shipping ConditionEvaluation sample solution : ship with blue ice.All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request
General tipsFor obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.

Protocol

Cell experiment [1]:

Cell lines

HeLa cells, K562 cells, HOS and MG63 cell lines.

Preparation method

The solubility of this compound in DMSO﹥10 mM. General tips for obtaining a higher concentration: Please warm the tube at 37 ℃ for 10 minutes and/or shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while. Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.

Reacting condition

100 nM gemcitabine for 3 h in HeLa cells for immunofluorescence, 500 nM gemcitabine for 6 h for SDS-PAGE

Applications

In Hela cells and K562 cells, gemcitabine activated both the ATR/Chk1 and ATM/Chk2 signaling pathways. (ATR: ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related kinase; Chk: checkpoint kinase; ATM: ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase). Gemcitabine is a DNA synthesis inhibitor with anti-tumor activity. In human osteosarcoma cell lines HOS and MG63, gemcitabine inhibited DNA synthesis and induced apoptosis.

Animal experiment [2]:

Animal models

Female C57BL/6 mice infected with LP-BM5 MuLV

Dosage form

1, 2, 4 mg/kg/day for 8 week by injection.

Application

Mice treated with 1 or 2 mg/kg/day had an average ratio of spleen to body weight that was significantly lower than the infected with virus, untreated mice. Treatment with gemcitabine decreased MAIDS associated lesions in the lymph nodes. IgM levels from mice treated with 2 mg/kg/day of gemcitabine were significantly lower than that seen in the uninfected animals. Gemcitabine decreased provirus levels.

Other notes

Please test the solubility of all compounds indoor, and the actual solubility may slightly differ with the theoretical value. This is caused by an experimental system error and it is normal.

References:

[1] Karnitz LM, Flatten KS, Wagner JM, et al. Gemcitabine-induced activation of checkpoint signaling pathways that affect tumor cell survival. Mol Pharmacol, 2005, 68(6): 1636-1644.

[2] Ando T, Ichikawa J, Okamoto A, et al. Gemcitabine inhibits viability, growth, and metastasis of osteosarcoma cell lines. J Orthop Res, 2005, 23(4): 964-969.

[3] Clouser CL, Holtz CM, Mullett M, et al. Analysis of the ex vivo and in vivo antiretroviral activity of gemcitabine. PLoS One, 2011, 6(1): e15840.

Quality Control

Chemical structure

Gemcitabine

Related Biological Data

Gemcitabine

Related Biological Data

Gemcitabine

Related Biological Data

Gemcitabine