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Aprotinin Inhibitor of bovine pancreatic trypsin

Catalog No.A2574
Size Price Stock Qty
Evaluation Sample
$28.00
In stock
10mg
$45.00
In stock
25mg
$105.00
In stock
50mg
$200.00
In stock
100mg
$335.00
In stock

Tel: +1-832-696-8203

Email: [email protected]

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Sample solution is provided at 25 µL, 10mM.

Product Citations

1. Ying Long, Xuri Zhang, et al. "Initial events in the breakthrough of the epithelial barrier of the small intestine by Angiostrongylus cantonensis." Arch Biol Sci. 2016;68(2):375-383

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Chemical structure

Aprotinin

Related Biological Data

Aprotinin

Related Biological Data

Aprotinin

Related Biological Data

Aprotinin

Biological Activity

Description Aprotinin is the small protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI).
Targets bovine pancreatic trypsin          
IC50            

Protocol

Cell experiment: [1]

Cell lines

HUVEC cells

Preparation method

The solubility of this compound in DMSO is >10 mM. General tips for obtaining a higher concentration: Please warm the tube at 37 °C for 10 minutes and/or shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20°C for several months.

Reaction Conditions

1600 kIU/mL, 60 min

Applications

Aprotinin dose-dependently inhibited the TNF-α–induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, but not E-selectin.

Animal experiment : [2]

Animal models

3- to 4-mo-old male Albino Wistar rats

Dosage form

The rats were anesthetized by 50 mg/kg of ketamine initially and treated with 12 mmHg pneumoperitoneum for 4h. Additional lower doses of ketamine were administered i.p. until the end of pneumoperitoneum to maintain anesthesia. A loading aprotinin dose of 28000 KIU/kg was given i.p. after the onset of pneumoperitoneum, followed by lower maintenance doses (7500 KIU/kg), which were administered per hour until the termination. Splanchnic reperfusion period lasted 60 or 180 min.

Applications

Treatment of aprotinin caused reduction of several cytokines and markers (TNF-α, IL-6, endothelin 1, C reactive protein, PAB and carbonyl proteins) of oxidative stress in all tissues (liver, small intestine, and lung) studied.

Other notes

Please test the solubility of all compounds indoor, and the actual solubility may slightly differ with the theoretical value. This is caused by an experimental system error and it is normal.

References:

[1] Asimakopoulos G, Lidington E A, Mason J, et al. Effect of aprotinin on endothelial cell activation. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, 2001, 122(1): 123-128.

[2] Baltatzis M, Pavlidis T E, Ouroumidis O, et al. Aprotinin reduces oxidative stress induced by pneumoperitoneum in rats. Journal of Surgical Research, 2014, 189(2): 238-248.

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Chemical Properties

Cas No. 9087-70-1 SDF N/A
Synonyms Aprotinin,Trypsin inhibitor (basic)
Chemical Name N/A
Canonical SMILES CC(O)=O.CC.CC.CCccC.[R].[P].[2H].[L].[E].[P].[P].[Y].[3H].[G].[KH].[R].[R].[Y].F.[Y].[*].[L].F.[V].[Y].[G].[G].[R].[KH].[R].N.N.F.[KH].S.[*].[2H].[R].[G].[G].[*].[KH].[*].[3H].C.[*].F.[P].[*].I.I.N.[Q].[3H].[M]
Formula C284H432N84O79S7 M.Wt 6511.44
Solubility Soluble to 10 mg/ml in sterile water Storage Store at 2-8°C
Shipping Condition Evaluation sample solution : ship with blue ice.All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.

Research Update

1. Replacement of aprotinin by ε-aminocaproic acid in infants undergoing cardiac surgery: consequences for blood loss and outcome. Br J Anaesth. 2013 Apr;110(4):615-21. doi: 10.1093/bja/aes430. Epub 2012 Dec 4.
Abstract
Aprotinin and EACA were evaluated for blood-sparing efficacy and other major clinical outcome criteria in infants undergoing cardiac surgery.
2. Retrospective cohort analysis of a single dose of aprotinin use in children undergoing cardiac surgery: a single-center experience. Paediatr Anaesth. 2013 Mar;23(3):242-9. doi: 10.1111/pan.12079. Epub 2012 Nov 27.
Abstract
The associations of aprotinin and red blood cells transfusion, renal injury and mortality in pediatric with cardiac surgery were assessed.
3. Aprotinin reduces the procalcitonin rise associated with complex cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. Physiol Res. 2013;62(1):27-33. Epub 2012 Nov 22.
Abstract
Aprotinin reduced PCT level as well as levels of a few inflammatory cytokines, including TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8, in post-PEA patients, in which PCT was significantly correlated with IL-6.
4. The risks associated with aprotinin use: a retrospective study of cardiac cases in Nova Scotia. Can J Anaesth. 2013 Jan;60(1):16-23. doi: 10.1007/s12630-012-9806-5. Epub 2012 Nov 7.
Abstract
Aprotinin may cause adverse effects, including increased risk of mortality and morbidity, during cardiac surgery.

Background

Aprotinin, a naturally occurring serine protease inhibitor, saves lives and decreases the risk of stroke and repeat surgery for massive bleeding1, 2, 3.

The use of aprotinin did not significantly increase the risk of renal failure or the need for postoperative renal replacement despite an increase in the proportion of patients who had a doubling of serum creatinine levels. The adjudication of death did not identify renal failure as contributing to or causing death associated with aprotinin use. A Meta analysis by Brown and colleagues showed a nonsignificant relative risk of renal failure with high-dose aprotinin4.

Although aprotinin is potentially more effective than other active agents in controlling hemostasis, we noted only a possible trend suggesting that it decreased massive bleeding. Only repeat surgeries and important blood losses through chest tubes, one of the main indications for surgery, were potentially improved by the use of aprotinin. Aprotinin did not appear to prevent massive bleeding or save the life of patients who had massive bleeding.

The adverse effects on mortality associated with aprotinin may also have been present among healthier patients, those under the age of 65 years, and those without coexisting illnesses at the time of surgery.

Despite the possibility of a modest reduction in the risk of massive bleeding, the strong and consistent negative mortality trend associated with aprotinin as compared with lysine analogues precludes its use in patients undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery5.

Reference:
1. Henry DA, Carless PA, Moxey AJ, et al. Anti-fibrinolytic use for minimising perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;4:CD001886.
2. Levi M, Cromheecke ME, de Jonge E, et al. Pharmacological strategies to decrease excessive blood loss in cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of clinically relevant endpoints. Lancet 1999;354:1940-7.
3. Sedrakyan A, Treasure T, Elefteriades JA. Effect of aprotinin on clinical outcomes in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2004;128:442-8.
4. Brown JR, Birkmeyer NJ, O’Connor GT. Meta-analysis comparing the effectiveness and adverse outcomes of antifibrinolytic agents in cardiac surgery. Circulation 2007;115:2801-13.
5. Dean A. Fergusson,  Paul C. Hébert et al, A Comparison of Aprotinin and Lysine Analogues in High-Risk Cardiac Surgery, N Engl J Med 2008; 358:2319-2331